Tuesday, March 19, 2013

If the Rubber Fits

A brief overview of condom history
By Cindy Spencer Pape

A question that often arises among romance authors is whether or not to have their heroes suit up. Dress the soldier. Wear a raincoat. In other words, use protection, act responsibly, practice safe sex. The condom has become one of the more debated aspects of the romance genre, especially erotic romance.

Arguments on both sides can be fierce. Many authors and readers argue that it’s irresponsible of fiction to not show characters engaging in (and presumably enjoying) safe sex. Others maintain that the romance novel is inherently a fantasy, and to interrupt the moment with mundane precautions would detract from the reader’s enjoyment. While both sides have valid points to be made, the decision gets even trickier when writing a historical romance.

Condoms have been available, in one form or another, for a long, long time. Whether or not our historical heroes would have had ready access to them or any inclination to use them depends on a lot of variables: when and where the hero lives being the most important. Wealth, religion, educational level—all of these can factor in. And of course, depending on how it was made and what it was made of, the efficacy varied wildly. So to get it right, an author actually needs to know a little bit about the origins of the little foil packet.

When I started my first historical romance a few years ago, I had to do some serious digging to find out what my Victorian characters would have access to and use. Of course, once I started, I became fascinated by the research and had to know more.

Nobody knows exactly when the condom was invented. There are Egyptian hieroglyphics roughly 3000 years old that show a man wearing what looks like a linen sheath over his penis. Nobody is sure if this was to prevent disease or pregnancy, or just for decoration. There are rumors of the Romans using this or that for contraception, but no definite references to what could be considered a condom. Cave paintings in France dated to around 100 AD again show men wearing a colored sheath, but again, we have no idea why.

However, people have been trying to not get pregnant, for one reason or another, almost as long as others have been trying to get pregnant. And it’s just common sense to put a barrier between the sperm and the womb. So the use of homemade condoms could go back—well—as at least as long as humans have been making sausage. Given the obviousness of a length of sheep gut with a knot tied in it, it seems likely that these relatively risky versions have been used for a very long time. Keep in mind though, that most of Europe was Catholic through the Middle Ages, and that the Catholic Church considered contraception of any kind (even withdrawal) a major sin. So while the concept may well have existed, it probably wasn’t discussed publicly or in common use.

The first written reference to what we now call a condom was by an Italian scientist named Fallopio (yes, as in Fallopian tubes) in 1564. He claimed to have “invented” a device to prevent the spread of venereal disease. The description isn’t very detailed, but apparently it was a linen sheath that fit over the glans—basically a little bonnet that tied on just over the head of the penis. He actually tested it on 1100 men and none of them became infected. So the condom for disease prevention isn’t a recent phenomenon. Another doctor published something similar in 1597.

From there forward, there’s a pretty clear record of condom use and innovation. They’re mentioned in a French play from 1655, maybe in the correspondence of two French noblewomen from the late 1600s and quite extensively in the memoirs of the legendary Giacomo Casanova, published in 1797. The famous lover didn’t much like them and there’s an engraving in the book of he and a friend inflating them like balloons to entertain a pair of ladies, thus starting a proud tradition carried out by high school boys to this day.

The word condom dates in print to 1706, in a poem, but the origins of the word remain a mystery. Legend says that a Dr. Condom introduced them to Charles II of England as a means of preventing additional illegitimate offspring, but no support of this has ever been found, and it’s now assumed to be a myth.

By the late 1700s you could find prophylactics made of hand sewn goat, sheep, or cow intestine, tanned fish skin, oiled silk, or even very fine leather. Some covered the whole penis, others were caps or “capottes” that just covered the glans, and most had a drawstring at the base to hold them in place. Condom technology really took off in the 1800s. They had great names like cundums, French Letters, French Preservatives, Male Safes, English Armor, and “Patent Circular Protector.”

Early experiments with rubber were fairly unsuccessful, until Goodyear and Hancock (separately) in about 1844 invented the vulcanization process. The new technique allowed for much more durable protection, though the resulting condoms were thicker than those made of skin. They were also designed to be washed out and reused until the rubber started to crumble. The first advertisement for rubber condoms appeared in the New York Times in 1861, so we know they were widely available by then. In 1873, the Comstock Act prohibited the sale of contraceptives by mail in the US, so for many years, they became harder to get with relative anonymity. The reservoir tip was added in 1901, and a method for making them without seams was discovered in Germany in 1912. In 1930 the latex condom was introduced, thus creating the rubber we know today.

Condom history often parallels the mores of society. The strict moralism of America in the early 1900s led to concentrated efforts to restrict condom use. As a result, during WWI, US soldiers had the highest venereal disease rate of any country, over 70%, by some sources, and by WWII, the US military had come around and begun actively promoting safe sex. In 1949, Japan produced the first colored condoms, and lubricated rubbers debuted in the 1950s.  In the 60s, polyurethane condoms were introduced, but were quickly pulled from the market because of their high rate of breakage. Spermicidal lubricant was first introduced in 1975.

The late 1960s saw a downturn in the condom business. Between the introduction of the pill and antibiotics taking the fear out of syphilis and gonorrhea, the idea of a sensation-dulling barrier lost a lot of its appeal. This turned around dramatically after the world learned about HIV in the 1980s, and the discovery that condoms dramatically reduced transmission of this incurable disease. Suddenly condoms were big business again. The wild 1990s saw the introduction of sized condoms, along with novelty products like flavors, ribs, studs, and even glow-in-the-dark rubbers. Polyurethane was reintroduced, with newer technologies solving the old issues of breakage. Condom innovations continue, as safe-sex becomes more and more a prominent social issue. And, for those with latex allergies, or who just like things old-school, be assured you can still buy condoms made of animal gut. They’re available on line or in your favorite drugstore—right next to the magnums and the ones ribbed for your pleasure.

So should we take time in a romance for our heroes to put on a condom? That question remains up to the author and the reader. Feel free to leave your opinion in the comments below, I’d love to hear them. But if you’re going to write it, do it right. Learn a little about the history of this marvelous invention. Make the condom fit the place, the time, the story—and, of course, the hero. In my Gaslight Chronicles, most of the time they do. Because to me, being smart and safe is heroic. Of course, sometimes in the throes of passion, we all make mistakes. :) 
About the Book: Cards & Caravans is book 5 in the Gaslight Chronicles steampunk romance series,Out yesterday from Carina Press. Find out more here.

Blurb: Belinda Danvers isn't a witch. But that won't stop them burning her at the stake...

Connor McKay can tell at a glance that Belinda's magickal powers are minimal at best. She can't be guilty of murdering village children. There's something suspicious about her arrest and lightning-quick sentence. Unfortunately, telling anyone how he knows would mean revealing his own powers. He's been sent by the Order of the Round Table to help and he can't just let her die.

Escaping from jail and running from vindictive villagers in her grandfather's steam-powered caravan is more excitement than Belinda's had in years. And despite the danger--or maybe because of it--she loves the time spent with her sexy rescuer. But there's more to his magick than he's letting on...

There's something going on that's bigger than the two of them. It's time for good to make a stand.
Review: 4 Stars from Romantic Times: “All the trappings of a good steampunk novel are here..but most enchanting of all is the love that develops between the hero and heroine.

 Contest: In conjunction with the release of Cards & Caravans, Cindy is running a contest for a $25.00 gift card to the e-book distributor of your choice, plus the chance to name a character in the next Gaslight Chronicles story. To enter, visit the “Contact Cindy” page on her website and send her a note. Mention which blog you saw this on and some little detail about the post. One entry per person per blog post. The complete rules and a list of post locations and dates are available on the “Contest” page on Cindy's site.


CaroleDee said...

Condoms in books don't bother me. What bothers me is the 'after' when a condom isn't used. The chick usually just lays there, or they cuddle, or whatever. It's gross. No way could I have a man do his biz without a condom and just blissfully fall asleep after. EW! LOL

Cindy Spencer Pape said...

Good point, Carole. :)

flchen1 said...

I think at this point, I'm more bothered when (depending on the genre), they DON'T use a condom--I tend to let it go more in historicals, but didn't realize that different options were in use so long ago! A very educational post, Cindy ;) And LOL and yep, CaroleDee!

Maria D. said...

I think that it really depends on the time period your book is set in - I absolutely believe in a contemporary romance or anything post WW1 that a condom should be a part of the story for both protection and birth control - previous to that it can be used as a means of protecting against disease but I believe anything post 1500 AD should have a condom in the story. Oh and I don't think it interrupts the moment - I think it shows the man respects himself and his partner:)

Cindy Spencer Pape said...

Setting matters too. In America, they were MUCH harder to get in the Victorian era than in England, where they were used frequently, back to the Regency, at least.

Thanks for the comments!

Ashlyn Chase said...

Wow! Incredible post.

I remember back when I started writing erotic romance, the lack of protection was the norm...in order not to interrupt the action, passion, feeling of being swept away.
I still prefer that. For some reason it's hotter to me that way.

Now my editors have been asking me to have my characters be responsible. I will at least make them have "the talk" first. The heroine is on the pill, they donates blood and it gets tested all the time. (That's my favorite, because I used to be a blood donor RN and can give a plug for an important cause.)

anny cook said...

I'm with CaroleDee...ewww. And yep, if possible, I want my characters to suit up.

Paris said...

I think each situation is different but most of the time, especially in contemporaries showing that one or both partners are responsible and quick thinking is perfectly acceptable.

Great post!

Cindy Spencer Pape said...

Ash, I love the idea of plugging blood donation. And yeah, Paris, I agree, it's going to be different for each book.

joye said...

Very interesting article. Most of the books I read don't mention using them. If it does, fine and if it doesn't won't bother me. i am more interested in the story.

Jina Bacarr said...

Fascinating, informative, and an interesting read! Excellent job, Cindy.

I think sporting a raincoat is important in erotic romance -- I made sure my H/H are protected in my latest contemp WIP.

CaroleDee said...

I just thought of this, but I heard a rumor a while back that EC was making their contemp writers use or at least mention bc. Is that true or is my imagination running away with me again?

Cindy Spencer Pape said...

I think they certainly prefer it, Carole Dee. Not 100% sure it's required, but I think it's expected.

Teresa K. said...


Another great post. I agree with Maria D. It depends on the time. If it's Regency or Victorian I think it depends on class of the person. If they were well off I would expect to see this, however if they were from a lower class no. Anything contemporary I expect them to use c

Dalton Diaz said...

Great post, Cindy! I'm a firm believer in a-dressing-the issue. (Sorry, couldn't resist.) I haven't heard it as any kind of requirement with EC, either, but it's important to me. If a condom isn't used in my books, there's a stated reason it's not required.

I also feel it's a measure of respect from the hero.